Hacking Tools and Intent

EU ministers seek to ban creation of ‘hacking tools’

As I read this story on various sites this morning I was reminded of the old quote – “If cryptography is outlawed, only outlaws will have cryptography”. Attempting to ban tools that may be used for “hacking” is quite extraordinary – as with many of these things, the devil is in the details.

Generally with many tools there are multiple uses – the tool itself does not determine intent. Outside of the IT world, people may own guns for hunting, sport, or even self defence. The argument that every gun is bad is quite specious (no matter what an individuals thoughts on the matter are).

The same is true of a security tool – things that may be used to secure, may also be used to break in, whether in the physical world, or in IT. The comment in the article regarding password cracking/recovery tools is a good one, but the situation is exacerbated when we look at testing.

The whole point about security testing is to check whether the “bad guys” can perform certain activities, but under a controlled and known scenario – the risk can be understood without having the impact of real malicious activity. There’s a simple question of how a valid test can be done without using tools designed for “hacking”.

It’s already a criminal offence in the UK to supply or make something that is likely to be used in offences – including “hacking”, DoS (‘denial of service’) or data modification under the Computer Misuse Act 1990 (‘CMA’) (as amended). Unfortunately this leaves a lot open to interpretation and confusion. There have been successful prosecutions under the act, but they include such crimes as sending too many emails, thereby creating a DoS attack (in the case in question ‘R v Lennon’, the defendant had deliberately set out to achieve this, but the tool in question was merely one designed to send emails.)

Although not directly in the CMA, the prosecutor’s guidance notes do point out that a legitimate security industry exists that may create and publish such applications (articles in the wording of the act) and that tools may have dual use. This does give a situation where a tool may be created and possessed by someone for legitimate reasons, distributed to a second person for apparent similar reasons, but then used by the second person for unlawful purposes (who may then be prosecuted).

Based on this guidance, things may not be all bad, but there’s still a lot of work to do in legitimising the concepts of testing in the law. If correctly written and applied then this may actually help and an EU-wide standard may reduce some of the problems seen with discrepancies and difficulties in interpretation across member states.

No related content found.

Leave a Reply